Nandan Nilekani

CEO of Infosys Technologies Limited, one of the jewels of the Indian information technology world. Friedman describes Nilekani as one of the most thoughtful and respected captains of Indian industry.


Friedman's wife. Ann is a first-grade teacher and Friedman's confidant throughout the text.

Orly and Natalie

Friedman's daughters, whom he references throughout the text.

David Ricardo

He is the Ricardo to whom Friedman refers in the subtitle of Chapter 5, Is Ricardo Still Right?. Ricardo (1772-1823) was an English economist who developed the free-trade theory of comparative advantage, which stipulates that if each nation specializes in the production of goods in which it has a comparative cost advantage and then trades with other nations for the goods in which they specialize, there will be an overall gain in trade, and overall income levels should rise in each trading country.

G. Wayne Clough

He is the president of Georgia Institute of Technology. When Clough became president of the college the graduation rate was only 65% and the atmosphere was dull. By altering the admission process to favor students who played a musical instrument or sports, Clough transformed the mood of the college. Students are more creative and have a higher rate of graduation.

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

Marx and Engels coauthored the Communist Manifesto, which has become one of the most influential political treatises in Western political thought. The Communist Manifesto was commissioned by the Communist League and published in 1848. The text incites the masses (the proletariat) to rise up and overthrow the bourgeoisie. Friedman references the text's insight into the globalization of the world.

Bill Cosby

Friedman invokes comedian Bill Cosby's July 2004 speech at Jesse Jackson's Rainbow/PUSH Coalition & Citizenship Education Fund's annual conference to discuss the importance of parenting in the flat world. Here, Cosby criticized African-American parents for not properly disciplining their children. Friedman believes all parents, regardless of race, class, ethnicity, or creed, must make sure their children are prepared for heightened competition in the flat world.

Bill and Melinda Gates

Despite the criticisms Friedman has had of Microsoft in the past, he presents Bill Gates (chairman of Microsoft) as someone who is personally committed to helping the other 3 billion people through his 27 billion dollar foundation, which he oversees with his wife Melinda. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is flattening the world by saving lives in impoverished third world nations.

Cite this page:

Clapsaddle, Diane. "TheBestNotes on A Long Way Gone".