The Ill Treatment of the Migrant Workers
The first theme is an outcry against the ill treatment of all migrant workers. Through the story of the Joads, the novel vividly reveals the horror of their existence and the effects of poverty on them. Steinbeck is pleading, in general, for an end to man's inhumanity to his fellow man. Specifically, he calls for a more humane treatment of the migrant worker.
Growth and Maturity
Tom Joad's growth in insight illustrates another of the main themes in the novel. Tom symbolizes the Biblical theme of growth, the assertion that the continuation of life requires rebirth and that all people have the potential of growth (rebirth). When Tom comes out of prison, he is selfish and individualistic, although he has a strong love for his family. His experiences in California, coupled with the influence of his mother and Casy, increase his wisdom and greatly change him from his selfish ways. He learns to embrace Casy's concept of the Oversoul and becomes aware that he has to be concerned not only with his own family's welfare but also with the welfare of all families. He hopes to translate Casy's philosophy into action and is quite willing to sacrifice his life for others families. By the end of the novel, he has truly gone through a rebirth. His new knowledge offers a hope for the future, an end to the miserable level of existence that is portrayed throughout The Grapes of Wrath.
Humanity Must Adapt to Conditions
The novel reveals Steinbeck's belief that humanity must adapt to the changing environment in order to survive. The landowners will have to adapt to new rules of humanity if they expect to peacefully retain and farm their land.
Love of the Earth
The novel is also preoccupied with the theme of love of the earth. The earth imagery performs a dual function of signifying love and of signifying endurance. Both these qualities are embodied in the character of Ma Joad.
Survival of the Family
The theme of familial survival also underlies the narrative action of the entire novel. During the tough journey to California, Ma Joad acts as the cohesive force who keeps her family together.
Dignity and the Strength of the Human Spirit
The theme of human dignity is also significant in the novel. The hardships of the migrant way of life thrust the problem of survival, at an animal level, on the Joads. Despite their hardships, the Joads always act proudly. Although they are concerned about survival, in terms of their search for food and shelter, they maintain a sense of human dignity.
The Grapes of Wrath is a tragic story of the dispossession of the Joads,
and the predominant mood is dark and gloomy. But there are also moments
of light-hearted humor, which provides relief and restores faith in the
human ability to survive against all odds.
John Steinbeck was born on February 27, 1902, in Salinas, California. He set many of his novels in and around his birthplace of Salinas, California, including Tortilla Flat, In Dubious Battle, Of Mice and Men, The Grapes of Wrath, and Cannery Row. After leaving Salinas High School in 1919, Steinbeck studied at Stanford University from 1920 to1925, but never completed a degree. The courses which attracted his attention most were zoology, English, and classical literature. After leaving the University, he worked at a variety of jobs. Between 1925 and 1927 he attempted to earn a living as a reporter and a free-lance writer, but was unsuccessful.
Steinbeck's first novel, Cup of Gold (1929), is based on the life of Sir Henry Morgan, a famous English pirate of the sixteen hundreds. His next work, The Pastures of Heaven (1932), is a collection of stories about the people on a farm community near Salinas. In this work, Steinbeck focuses on the struggle between human beings and nature. These first two books received scant attention. Finally, in 1933, Steinbeck achieved success with his short story, The Red Pony. Steinbeck's next novel, Tortilla Flat (1935), dealt with the migrant workers and poor farmers. In Dubious Battle (1936) realistically portrays the labor strife in California during the nineteen thirties. This novel also sets forth Steinbeck's concept of "group humanity" through the character of Doc Burton. This concern reappears in The Grapes of Wrath (1939) and The Sea of Cortez (1941). Of Mice and Men (1937) became a best seller and was adapted for the stage and a movie. In it, Steinbeck tells the tragic story about a physically powerful but mentally retarded farm worker, Lennie, and his best friend and protector, George; their plans for owning a farm never materialize. Instead, Lennie kills a woman and George shoots him.
In 1940, Steinbeck went on an expedition to the Gulf of California (also called
The Sea of Cortez) with his friend Ed Ricketts, a marine biologist. Steinbeck
shared with him a deep interest in biology. The result of this trip was
a joint publication, The Sea of Cortez: A Leisurely Journal of Travel
and Research. The book is in two parts. The first part narrates the
voyage and records various conversations and speculations and the second
part describes the marine organisms collected by the men.
Other works include:
Cannery Row (1944)
The Wayward Bus (1947)
The Pearl (1947),
Burning Bright (1950),
East of Eden (1952),
Sweet Thursday (1954)
The Winter of Our Discontent (1961)
East of Eden is Steinbeck's longest and most ambitious work. It follows three generations of a Californian family from 1860 to the first World War. The title refers to the family strife, which parallels the conflict between the Biblical figures of Cain and Abel.
Steinbeck received the Pulitzer Prize in 1940 and the Nobel Prize for
Literature in 1962. He died on December 20, 1968.
The Grapes of Wrath (1939) is Steinbeck's most famous novel and won the 1940 Pulitzer Prize. The novel tells the story of the Joads, who migrate to California in search of a better life during the Great Depression of the nineteen thirties. Steinbeck effectively portrays how the struggle of the Joads mirrors the hardships of the entire nation. The Joads learn, through the inspiration of Jim Casy, that the poor must work together in order to survive.
Two great historical and social phenomena merged in the thirties to create
The Grapes of Wrath . The first was a growing interest among
the American intellectuals in the philosophy of Marxism, or Socialism
as a means of helping the laboring classes. Casy's thinking in the novel
is based upon these philosophies. The second phenomenon was the natural
disaster of the Dust Bowl. In November of 1933, a huge dust cloud rose
over an area of the U.S. stretching from Texas to South Dakota. The dust
storm eroded the topsoil of the region and blew it away. Crops were destroyed,
and many small farmers lost their lands to the banks that held mortgages
on their farms. Corporations were forced to farm under intensive large-scale
operations, using tractors to replace the horse-drawn plows of the small
farmer. Thousands of sharecroppers were evicted from their lands which
had been settled by their forefathers. About 4,000 people were, therefore,
forced by circumstances to travel in unreliable cars to California in
search of work. With deteriorating conditions for the farm workers in
the West, there were innumerable strikes during the years of 1933 and
1934. Steinbeck, as a newspaper reporter, saw first-hand the difficult
life of the migrants during his visits to the labor camps. He resolved
to write a "big book" chronicling the suffering and oppression
of the migrants. The outcome of his efforts was The Grapes of Wrath