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INVISIBLE MAN BY RALPH ELLISON: LITERARY CRITICISM / NOTES
One of the women tries to go back into her apartment to pray. The white man tells her she is evicted and cannot re-enter. He threatens to hit her, but she charges ahead anyway. She is knocked back to the sidewalk, and someone yells that the white man hit her. Before a fight erupts, the narrator runs between the people and the marshal to intervene. He begins to deliver a speech, even though he fears they may laugh at him. Instead, people take him seriously and listen for a moment; they then storm up the steps anyway. Shots are fired, the marshal is beaten, and the narrator finds himself on the ground, having been trampled over.
The narrator picks himself up and helps the others as they chase the marshal away. They then begin to carry furniture back into the apartment. There is a mood of excitement, empowerment, and pride amongst the blacks. Suddenly, the narrator notices other that other white men are present; they represent some organization and claim to be friends of all people. They encourage the blacks to hold a demonstration. Before they can march, a police officer arrives and orders everyone to clear the streets. The officer calls into headquarters to report a riot and questions the white people as to why they are in Harlem.
In the midst of the confusion, the narrator escapes quietly into the apartment building and up the stairs. A woman recognizes him as the speechmaker and warns him that he is headed in the wrong direction; she encourages him to escape over the roof, so his identity will remain unknown. As he leaves by way of the roof, the narrator realizes he is being followed by a man who does not shoot or shout at him. Once he reaches the street, he believes he has escaped safely. A man standing at the corner compliments him for his speech; he realizes it is the same man who has followed him on the roof. The narrator pretends that he does not know what the man is talking about. The man compliments him again and invites him to talk in a coffee shop, because it is not safe to be seen together on the street.
Once in the coffee shop, the narrator has a feeling that the man is not being
totally himself and wonders how much he can trust him. The man, who calls
himself Brother Jack, gives him the same compliment the woman at the roof
gave him; he stirs people to action with his words. The man explains to
the narrator that individuals are not important; he needs to focus his
speech-making abilities on the masses. The narrator is offended by this
statement, for he identifies himself with individuals, such the old people
who have been evicted. The man tells him that while he may have been like
those people once, he is different now. The narrator disagrees and distrusts
the strange man; he also declines an offer to work for the man giving
speeches and bringing local people to action by expressing their grievances.
The man explains that the difference between individual and organized
resistance means the difference between criminal activity and political
activity. The narrator takes the man's phone number and leaves. Although
he does not understand everything that has been said, the narrator believes
that Brother Jack has spoken with confidence and assurance and feels intrigued.
In this chapter, the central event in the novel occurs as the narrator feels a sense of liberation; he feels exhilarated and free when he is not ashamed to eat a yam on the street, something he would never have done in the South. He has risen above his fear of seeming backward and “black”. The white power structure demands that certain things be valued and others scorned; the narrator realizes how much he has given up in his life to go along with what society has said he "should" like and do. Now he understands how absurd it is to feel ashamed for being who he is and doing what he enjoys. It is a realization that liberates and energizes the narrator.
In the next scene, the narrator uses his liberation as a stepping stone toward
identity. A crowd of people stands around on the street watching an old
couple being forcibly evicted from their home. There is a great deal of
shame as the spectators watch their household items being poured out on
the sidewalk. The narrator is prompted to speak out--to tell the spectators
that it is perfectly normal to want to help the couple; it is all right
to want to stop the cruel eviction. With a zeal he has not had since his
experience with the white leaders in the first chapter, he makes a speech
energizing the black people to express their feelings. The ensuing scene
is wild, and the narrator is smart to flee when things get out of hand.
However, he is followed and recognized by people who apparently support
and compliment him on his speech making abilities. Brother Jack offers
him a job, but the narrator is suspicious, for the strange white man is
secretive and mysterious. He tells the narrator that he needs to speak
out for a cause - to represent the masses, not just individuals, like
the old people. The narrator is bothered, for Brother Jack asks him to
suppress his personal identity for the good of all, just at a time when
he is beginning to discover it and revel in it.
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. 09 May 2017