Free Study Guide: The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck - Free BookNotes|
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THE GRAPES OF WRATH: SYNOPSIS / PLOT SUMMARY / ANALYSIS
The driver's persistent questioning irritates the hitchhiker, but he says
angrily that he does not have anything to hide and will tell the driver
everything so that he does not have to guess. The driver explains that
he was not being nosy, just making small talk. He adds that driving alone
all day pushes a man to the verge of insanity and that he feels a need
to communicate when someone is nearby. He further tells of his plans to
do some correspondence school courses, like mechanical engineering, in
order to improve his future employment prospects. The hitchhiker tells
the man that his name is Tom Joad. While getting out of the truck, Tom
affirms the driver's suspicions by revealing that he is out on parole
from McAlester, an Oklahoma state prison, where he has served four years
for homicide. He says that he killed a man in a drunken brawl and was
sentenced to seven years imprisonment but was out on account of good behavior.
Thanking the driver for the lift, Tom walks towards home.
Steinbeck ensures that there is a continuity in the novel so that the novel does not simply fall into two distinct parts of narrative chapter and interchapter. Chapter two picks up from where the first interchapter left off. Steinbeck achieves a smooth transition from the dying fire-tone of the dust-laden sky to the vivacious red of the transport truck. The faint red of the dusty sky and the dynamic red of the truck symbolize the combined threats of nature and machine.
The second chapter develops certain particulars of the main story. Although the novel is replete with symbolic episodes and imagery, the plot is of prime importance. The action of the plot is generated through the story of the individualized suffering of the Joad family. In this chapter, the first Joad is introduced in the person of Tom, the novel's protagonist. The reader learns about his past when he reveals it to the truck driver. Having served four years in prison for homicide, he is now out on parole on account of his good behavior; therefore, if he leaves for California with his family, he will be breaking his parole and the law. Throughout the novel, a constant threat of being arrested hangs over Tom’s head.
The nameless "walking man" of the first chapter is personalized in the figure of Tom Joad. The detailed description of Tom stresses his well-defined features and his strong, hardy body. It would seem that he is physically fit to endure the hardships that are ahead. The truck driver hints of the hardships. He is amazed that Tom’s father has held on to a small farm and asks his rider, "A forty-acre cropper and he ain't been dusted out and he ain't been tractored out?" Now the nameless sharecroppers of the first chapter have taken on a reality in the form of Tom and his family.
The driver's astonishment prepares the reader in advance for the novel's main complication--the eviction of the sharecroppers from the farms and the tractors taking over the work of the small farmer and his ploy. The reader is also being prepared to accept Tom’s later hostility towards the landowners in California. Already he resents authority figures. He is hostile towards the owners of the company who makes a good guy carry the "No Riders" sticker on his truck and refers to them as “rich bastards,” indicating his delineation of social positions. They are rich, and he is poor.
Other elements introduced in this chapter receive a fuller treatment later
on in the novel. The truck drivers and the roadside cafes with their characteristic
waitresses dot the entire route to California and are often mentioned
in the book. A central ethic advanced in the novel is that only the poor
help the poor. Tom was able to convince the truck driver to give him a
ride only because he himself was poor and so was sympathetic to Tom. The
chapter also provides another parallel found later in the book. The truck
driver's plan to better his prospects by taking correspondence school
courses parallels the ambitions of Connie Rivers. Most importantly, Steinbeck's
mastery in creating the essence of ordinary farming folks is evident in
this chapter. The rest of the novel will add new details to the picture
of the farming folk as they become migrant workers.
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. 09 May 2017