Free Study Guide for An American Tragedy by Theodore Dreiser|
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AN AMERICAN TRAGEDY FREE CHAPTER SUMMARIES
Hortense’s deceptions mirror Clyde’s own behavior in Book Two. However, her
decision to keep Clyde at a distance, while manipulative, is also seen
by two girls with less mercenary impulses: Roberta Alden and Sondra Finchley,
who both believe in restraint for its own sake, instead of as a means
to string along interested men.
Clyde and Hortense dated non-exclusively - at least, non-exclusively on Hortense’s part. Clyde tries to win her over with gifts and attention, and she keeps him on line with small, promising signs of affection. Four months pass and Clyde knows he’s made no real progress. At home, Clyde has noticed how his mother was receiving letters and suspects they’re from Esta. Around the time he started pursuing Hortense, Elvira asks if he knows how to obtain $100 quickly. Clyde is torn by conflicting duties - to family and to self - and says he doesn’t know any way. Elvira decides to have Clyde pawn some family keepsakes and borrow the rest of the money from Mr. Murch. She’ll pay Murch back, but Clyde needs to give her an extra $5 a week in the meanwhile to cover that repayment. Clyde pawns the keepsakes for $45 and, with $10 his mother already had, needed $45 more from Murch. For the next nine weeks, then, Clyde must pay his mother $10 instead of the usual $5. Clyde knows how much she sacrifices but wants the money for himself, especially in his pursuit of Hortense.
Soon after, Clyde sees his mother on Montrose Street, looking for a room to rent; when he asks her about this that night, she claims it’s for somebody who’s sick and has little money. A month later, Clyde sees his mother on Missouri Avenue with a heavy bag. Seeing Clyde, Elvira ducks into an apartment building. Clyde sees her leave cautiously, furtively, which puzzles and intrigues him. A week later, Clyde thinks he sees Esta, his sister, near Eleventh and Baltimore. He brings this up to his mother, who pretends to be surprised but does a bad job of it. One day a month later, Clyde sees Elvira on the streets with a small basket. He follows her to a rooming house in Beaudry and soon sees Esta looking out the front window.
An hour later, Elvira leaves and Clyde goes in to see Esta. She’s surprised
and happy to see him, and he quickly realizes she’s pregnant. She tells
Clyde she’s been back a month, confirming his earlier sighting of her.
Sensing discomfort at the situation, Esta asks Clyde not to tell their
mother what he knows. When she begins crying, Clyde asks if she was married
and is told that’s not the case. The man she ran away with had left her
in a Pittsburgh hotel with no money. Elvira sent her $100 and Esta worked
at a restaurant while she could, ashamed to admit she had been abandoned.
Finally, though, she decided to return. Elvira doesn’t want Julia or Frank
to know about Esta’s pregnancy, but Esta is lonely and scared in her current
situation. Clyde promises to visit Esta again and offers to help; after
leaving, he thinks of the abandoned girl at the Green-Davidson and the
similarities with Esta. He sees how different his reactions are when something
such as this happens to family and not strangers.
Elvira entrusts Clyde, not Asa, to handle the pawnshop; this trust placed in him shows the ineffectiveness of Clyde’s own father, but is also misplaced since Clyde is holding back on giving his family more of his earnings. Money is equated with entitlement in Clyde’s mind. He believes if he pays his family more, he is entitled to more consideration by them. When reuniting with Esta, Clyde sees the consequences of running away from home - he wanted to escape as well, but now considers what could happen if planned poorly. The contrast between the Green-Davidson girl and Esta is instructive, as it shows how naturalism tries to turn the harsh realities of life into more personal stories that move readers.
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Mescallado, Ray. "TheBestNotes on An American Tragedy".
. 09 May 2017